This guide is intended to fill the gaps between the Vulkan documentation and the rest of the GLFW documentation and is not a replacement for either. It assumes some familiarity with Vulkan concepts like loaders, devices, queues and surfaces and leaves it to the Vulkan documentation to explain the details of Vulkan functions.
To develop for Vulkan you should download the LunarG Vulkan SDK for your platform. Apart from headers and link libraries, they also provide the validation layers necessary for development.
The GLFW library does not need the Vulkan SDK to enable support for Vulkan. However, any Vulkan-specific test and example programs are built only if the CMake files find a Vulkan SDK.
For details on a specific function in this category, see the Vulkan reference. There are also guides for the other areas of the GLFW API.
By default, GLFW will look for the Vulkan loader on demand at runtime via its standard name (
vulkan-1.dll on Windows,
libvulkan.so.1 on Linux and other Unix-like systems and
libvulkan.1.dylib on macOS). This means that GLFW does not need to be linked against the loader. However, it also means that if you are using the static library form of the Vulkan loader GLFW will either fail to find it or (worse) use the wrong one.
The GLFW_VULKAN_STATIC CMake option makes GLFW link directly against the static library form. Not linking against the Vulkan loader will then be a compile-time error.
Because the Vulkan loader and ICD are not installed globally on macOS, you need to set up the application bundle according to the LunarG SDK documentation. To help the GLFW CMake files find the SDK, you can set the
VULKAN_SDK environment variable to the
macOS subdirectory of the SDK.
This is explained in more detail in the LunarG Vulkan SDK release notes.
To include the Vulkan header, define GLFW_INCLUDE_VULKAN before including the GLFW header.
If you instead want to include the Vulkan header from a custom location or use your own custom Vulkan header then do this before the GLFW header.
Unless a Vulkan header is included, either by the GLFW header or above it, any GLFW functions that take or return Vulkan types will not be declared.
VK_USE_PLATFORM_*_KHR macros do not need to be defined for the Vulkan part of GLFW to work. Define them only if you are using these extensions directly.
If you are linking directly against the Vulkan loader then you can skip this section. The canonical desktop loader library exports all Vulkan core and Khronos extension functions, allowing them to be called directly.
If you are loading the Vulkan loader dynamically instead of linking directly against it, you can check for the availability of a loader and ICD with glfwVulkanSupported.
This function returns
GLFW_TRUE if the Vulkan loader and any minimally functional ICD was found.
If if one or both were not found, calling any other Vulkan related GLFW function will generate a GLFW_API_UNAVAILABLE error.
To load any Vulkan core or extension function from the found loader, call glfwGetInstanceProcAddress. To load functions needed for instance creation, pass
NULL as the instance.
Once you have created an instance, you can load from it all other Vulkan core functions and functions from any instance extensions you enabled.
This function in turn calls
vkGetInstanceProcAddr. If that fails, the function falls back to a platform-specific query of the Vulkan loader (i.e.
GetProcAddress). If that also fails, the function returns
NULL. For more information about
vkGetInstanceProcAddr, see the Vulkan documentation.
Vulkan also provides
vkGetDeviceProcAddr for loading device-specific versions of Vulkan function. This function can be retrieved from an instance with glfwGetInstanceProcAddress.
Device-specific functions may execute a little bit faster, due to not having to dispatch internally based on the device passed to them. For more information about
vkGetDeviceProcAddr, see the Vulkan documentation.
To do anything useful with Vulkan you need to create an instance. If you want to use Vulkan to render to a window, you must enable the instance extensions GLFW requires to create Vulkan surfaces.
To query the instance extensions required, call glfwGetRequiredInstanceExtensions.
These extensions must all be enabled when creating instances that are going to be passed to glfwGetPhysicalDevicePresentationSupport and glfwCreateWindowSurface. The set of extensions will vary depending on platform and may also vary depending on graphics drivers and other factors.
If it fails it will return
NULL and GLFW will not be able to create Vulkan window surfaces. You can still use Vulkan for off-screen rendering and compute work.
If successful the returned array will always include
VK_KHR_surface, so if you don't require any additional extensions you can pass this list directly to the
Additional extensions may be required by future versions of GLFW. You should check whether any extensions you wish to enable are already in the returned array, as it is an error to specify an extension more than once in the
Not every queue family of every Vulkan device can present images to surfaces. To check whether a specific queue family of a physical device supports image presentation without first having to create a window and surface, call glfwGetPhysicalDevicePresentationSupport.
VK_KHR_surface extension additionally provides the
vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceSupportKHR function, which performs the same test on an existing Vulkan surface.
Unless you will be using OpenGL or OpenGL ES with the same window as Vulkan, there is no need to create a context. You can disable context creation with the GLFW_CLIENT_API hint.
See Windows without contexts for more information.
You can create a Vulkan surface (as defined by the
VK_KHR_surface extension) for a GLFW window with glfwCreateWindowSurface.
If an OpenGL or OpenGL ES context was created on the window, the context has ownership of the presentation on the window and a Vulkan surface cannot be created.
It is your responsibility to destroy the surface. GLFW does not destroy it for you. Call
vkDestroySurfaceKHR function from the same extension to destroy it.